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דף יא,א גמרא
in reality, The academy of Hillel comes to explain their reason and the reason for the academy of Shammai Rather: the academy of Shammai What is the reason מאי טעמא they do not say like the academy of Hillel? They would say to you -- the academy of Shammai would -- If so, let scripture say in the morning And in the evening, What then does it mean when it says "when you lie down and when you arise." in the hour of lying down there should be lying down actually and really and in the hour of rising there should be rising actually and really and the academy of Shammai How do they explain this quote from scripture: "and when you walk on the way" What will they make of it? They need it to account for that which was taught "when you are sitting in your house" creates an exclusion for one who is involved in a commandment "and when you walk on the way" creates an exclusion for a bridegroom
from here they said the one who marries the virgin is exempt and one who marries the widow is liable What is to be heard to support this reading? Rav Pappa said: the situation must be like journeying along a way Just as journeying along a way is a voluntary act in the same way any voluntary act does not create an exemption.
We are not dealing with one who is going for a matter of a commandment and even here, the Merciful One in the Torah says to recite Shema, even when going to perform another mitzvah if so, let the Merciful One write in the Torah "while sitting" and "while walking" What then is the purpose of choosing the words "in your sitting" "and in your walking" Had the Torah written "in a sitting state" applied to you and "in a walking state" applied to you that person is obligated this one who is in the process of a commandment is exempt If so, even one who has married the widow this one, too, should be exempt This one is agitated and that one is not agitated If it is because of lit., from the name of the state of being agitated even a person in a case where his boat has sunk in the sea -- such a person, too, should be exempt And if you say here, too, Why is it that Rav Abba bar Zavda said Rav said a mourner is liable in all the commandments. that are said in the Torah except for putting on the tefillin for behold! it is said regarding them ??? as it is said (Ezek. 24) ??? incarcerated upon you there i.e., in another mishna he is agitated by the agitation of a commandment Here in this case, he is agitated by the agitation over a permitted matter
and the academy of Shammai They need it creates an exclusion for those who are emissaries of a commandment And the academy of Hillel They said: it teaches this ipso facto we can learn from this that even on the way also one recites.
The Rabbis taught The academy of Hillel says: They may adopt any posture for the reading of Shema they stand and read they sit and read and they recline and read they walk on the way and read they do their work and read And it once happened to Rabbi Yishmael and R' Elazar ben Azarya that they were dining together in one place and R' Yishmael was reclining and R' Elazar ben Azarya was standing upright immediately arrived the time of reading Shema he reclined ??? Rabbi Eliezer did --- and he stood upright ??? R' Yishmael did. He said to him: ( Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to R' Yishmael ) Yishmael my brother I will tell a parable to you about what just happened one may compare it to what? The matter is comparable to a parable to one where they say to him your beard is great He said to them: it shall be opposite the destroyers i.e., they compliment his beard and his response is to have it cut off Even thus in the same way You The whole time that I was standing upright you were reclining; now that I reclined you stood upright He said to him: I acted in accordance with the words of the academy of Hillel And you acted in accordance with the words of the academy of Shammai and not only this, but I had to act like the academy of Hillel lest the students see it the way you acted and establish it as a halacha for the generations. And what is meant by " and not only this "? And if you say the academy of Hillel also there is for them permission to recite Shema while reclining that is only in the case lit., "these words" הני מילי where he is reclining and he came that way from the beginning but not where he changes positions to recline but: Here in this case, immediately that until now you were standing upright and now you are reclining They will say we can Learn from this that like the academy of Shammai they both reason this way and so I behaved the way I did, lest the students see it and establish it as a halacha for the generations.
Rav Yechezkel learned: One who acts in accordance with the words of the academy of Shammai One who acts in accordance with the words of Watch out for leading vav And the academy of Hillel One who acts Rav Yosef said: One who acts in accordance with the words of the academy of Shammai he did not do anything at all. For it was taught in a baraita whoever was in a situation where his head and the majority of his body were in a sukkah and his table was in the midst of the house the academy of Shammai invalidate it And the academy of Hillel validate it And they said to them ??? the academy of Hillel to the academy of Shammai ??? It once happened that they went ??? the elders of the academy of Shammai and the elders of the academy of Hillel ??? to visit R' Yochanan ben ha-Choranit they found him in a situation such that it was his head and the majority of his body in the sukkah and his table in the midst of the house and they did not say to him anything That's the end of the narrative of the visit. The narrative of the argument between the academies of Hillel and Shammai continues And they said to them From here is there proof ? Even they said to him: If thus is how you have been accustomed you have not upheld the commandments of sukkah in your days.
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said One who acts in accordance with the words of the academy of Shammai he is liable as we learned: For it was taught in a baraita Rabbi Tarfon said I was going on the way and I lay down to read in accordance with the words of the academy of Shammai and I endangered myself because of bandits They said to him: It would have been proper and appropriate that the responsibility would have been on yourself for you transgressed on the words of the academy of Hillel
דף יא,א משנה
In the morning, one blesses two blessings before it and one after it; And in the evening, one blesses two blessings before it and two after it One long and one short a place where they said to prolong he does not have permission to shorten and in a case where they said to shorten he does not have permission to prolong In a case where they said to seal i.e., to end a long blessing with a brief concluding formula he does not have permission to not seal and in a case where they said to not seal he does not have permission to seal
דף יא,א גמרא
What does he say when he makes the blessing R' Yaakov said R' Osha'ya said
דף יא,ב גמרא
(Is. 45) "Who forms light and creates darkness" Let us say, instead, "Who forms light and creates light" This is rejected: As it is written is how we say it. Except I can object with text from here: (Is. 45) "the one who makes peace and created evil" does anyone lit., who comes to say this as it is written? Rather: it is written "evil" and we recite "everything" as a euphemism lit., as elevated tongue Here in this case, also, Let us say, light as a euphemism lit., as elevated tongue But rather, Rabba said, we keep the original text of "light" and "darkness" in order to invoke the attribute of day by night and the attribute of night by day. In reality, we do indeed mention the attribute of night by day since we say: "Who forms light and created darkness" in the morning But, the attribute of day by night In what way does it concerns itself? Abayye said: "You roll away light from before darkness and darkness from before light" which we say at night
And the other one: i.e., the other beracha What is it? Rav Yehudah said that Shmuel said "Copious love" And thus he taught or ruled to him -- Rabbi Eliezer to R' Padat, his son -- "Copious love" Another teaching is like this: We do not say "Love eternal" but rather, "Copious love" And the rabbbis say "Love eternal" And thus it says (Jer. 31) And love eternal the world I have loved you because of this I have drawn you near with lovingkindness." R' Yehudah said: Shmuel said One who arose early to learn before he read the recitation of Shema It is necessary for him to bless before learning From when he has read the recitation of Shema it is not necessary to bless For already he has become exempt with reciting "Copious love" Rav Huna said For scripture, it is necessary for him to bless. but for midrash, it is not necessary to bless but R' Elazar said for scripture and for midrash It is necessary for him to bless For mishnah, it is not necessary to bless And R' Yochanan said: Even for mishnah, also is required to bless some texts read: but for talmud it is not necessary to bless. And Rabba said Even for talmud It is necessary for him some texts read: to return and to bless for Rav Chiya bar Ashi said: Oftentimes I was standing in the presence of Rav to say over our chapter in the Sifra of the academy of Rav. He would arise and go wash his hands and he would make a blessing, and he would say over to us our chapter. What does he say when he makes the blessing? R' Yehudah said: Shmuel said who made us holy with His commandments and commanded us to be involved in words of Torah and R' Yochanan would conclude it thus Make pleasant please, Hashem our God the words of Your Torah in our mouths and in the mouths of Your nation the house of Israel and may it be that we and our offspring and the offspring of Your nation the house of Israel all of us knowing Your Name and involved in Your Torah Blessed are You, God. the One who teaches Torah to His nation Israel" and Rav Hamnunah said "who chose us from all the nations and gave to us His Torah Blessed are You, God. who gives the Torah" Rav Hamnunah said This is the highest of the blessings Therefore, let us say all of them.
It was taught there: He said to them -- the one who was appointed as deputy to the high priest said -- You all shall now bless One blessing and they blessed and they read the Ten Commandments "Shema", "V'haya Im Shamoa", "Vayomer" and they blessed the nation with three blessings "True and Stable" and the blessing of the Service and the blessing of the priests and on Shabbat they add one blessing for the rotating watch-group (mishmar) that is coming out What is this "one blessing" This is like Rabbi Abba and R' Yosi bar Abba they came to this some place They asked i.e., the people of this place asked of them What is this "one blessing"? It was not in their hands i.e., they did not have an answer. and they came they asked of Rav Matanah It was not in his hands. they came they asked of Rav Yehudah He said to them Thus said Shmuel "Copious love" and Rabbi Zereika said Rabbi Ami said R' Shimon ben Lakish (Resh Lakish) said "Who forms light" When he came from eretz Yisrael -- Rav Isaac bar Joseph came -- he said this statement of Rabbi Zerika was not in a clarifying explanation was it said; but rather, in a derivation was it said; for R' Zerika said Rav Ami said Reish Lakish said This fact says to us that blessings are not indispensible this one for that one If you say, in reality, "Who forms light" is what they would say this was the meaning that blessings are not indispensible this one for that one for they did not come to say "Copious love"
Copyright © 2012 Andrew Marc Greene. All rights reserved.