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דף ד,א גמרא
Benaihu son of Yehodia, this refers to the Sanhedrin and Avitar these are the Urim v'Tumim And thus it says (II Sam 20) and Benaihu son of Yehodia was on the Kerati and on the Peleti and for what reason was called their names Kerati and Peleti ? Kerati because cutting i.e., insightful are their words ; Peleti because they are distinguished in their words. And after this "the captain of the host of the king Yoav." Rav Yitzchak bar Ada said and there are those who say it was Rav Yitzchak the son of Rav Idi said What verse supports this? (Ps. 57) Awake, my honor! Awake, the nabla-harp and lyre I will awaken the dawn!"
Rabbi Zeira said Moses in reality, would know when it was exactly midnight And David, also, would know And because of the fact that David would know, a lyre what is the purpose to him? I.e., what did he need it for? To awaken him from his sleep. And because of the fact that Moshe would know, what is the purpose for him to say "About midnight?" Moses his reasoning is lest they err -- the astrologers of Pharaoh -- and they shall say Moses a liar is he, As Mar said: teach your tongue to say I do not know lest you be led into lying. Rav Ashi said: In the midpoint of night of the thirteenth of Nisan going into the fourteenth it was happening. and thus he comes to say -- Moses to Israel -- The Holy One, Who is Blessed, said "Tomorrow like midnight of tonight For ??? I will go out in the midst of Egypt" (Ps. 86) "Of David: Guard my soul for a pious one am I" Levi and R' Yitzchak One says thus said David, before the Holy One, Who is Blessed Master of the world Am I not pious? for all of the kings of East and West they sleep until three hours. and as for me, (Ps. 119) at midnight I arise to give thanks to you And the other one thus said David before the Holy One, Who is Blessed Master of the world Am I not pious? for all of the kings of East and West they sit in groups and groups in their honor and as for me, my hands are soiled with blood and with a fetus and with the placenta so that I can rule to declare tahor a woman for her husband. And not only this, but everything that I do I double-check with Mefivoshet my Rabbi And I say to him: Mefivoshet my Rabbi: is it proper lit: beautiful my ruling? is proper my ruling that a person is guilty? is proper my ruling that a person is innocent? proper my ruling that a person is tahor? proper my ruling that a person is tamei? And I am not ashamed Thus said R' Yehoshua the son of Rav Idi What verse supports this? (Ps. 119) And I speak of Your testimonies opposite kings and I am not ashamed. a Tanna taught: It is not the case that Mefivoshet was his name but rather, "Ish Boshet" (a man of shame) was his name and for what reason was his name called Mefivoshet? For he would cause shame to the face of David in matters of halacha. For this reason David did gain merit and went out from him Keli'av and R' Yochanan said Not Keli'av was his name but rather, Daniel was his name. And for what reason was his name called Keli'av? For he would humilate the face of Mefivoshet in matters of halacha. And about him said Solomon in his wisdom (Prov. 23) My son, if wise your heart, shall rejoice my heart even I." And it is said: (Prov. 27) Be wise, my son, and rejoice my heart and I shall answer my taunters a word."
And David, who is it who calls him for his own sake a pious one For it is written (Ps. 27) If only I could believe that I will see in the goodness of Hashem in the land of the living. and it was taught in the name of R' Yosi For what reason are there dots on "If only"? Thus said David before the Holy One, Who is Blessed Master of the World, Certain am I about You that You will make complete the good reward to the righteous in the future to come but: I do not know if there is for me a portion among them or not. He was concerned lest it be caused by the sin that he might commit in the future, and he lose his place. It is like that which was said by Rabbi Ya'akov son of Idi For R' Ya'akov bar Idi pointed out a contradiction. It is written (Gen. 28) and behold I myself am with you and I shall watch over you in all that you walk" and then it is written (Gen. 32) And Ya'akov was afeared greatly he said lest it be caused by the sin that he might commit in the future, and he lose God's promise. As it is taught: (Ex. 15) "Until Your nation passes over Hashem until this nation passes over which You have acquired." How do we understand this double reference? "Until Your nation passes over Hashem" -- This refers to the first arrival into Eretz Yisrael; "until this nation passes over which You have acquired." This refers to the second arrival; from here the sages said The intention was regarding Israel to do for them a miracle in the days of Ezra like the way that it was made to them in the days of Joshua bin Nun except that a sin caused God to revoke the intent.
Our mishna continued: but the sages say until midnight
The sages like who do they reason? If it was like Rabbi Eliezer that they reason, let them say like Rabbi Eliezer
דף ד,ב גמרא
and if like Rabban Gamliel they reason, let them say like Rabban Gamliel In reality lit: In the world like Rabban Gamliel they reason. And this is what they came to say: this is their intended meaning until midnight in order to distance a person from the transgression. As it is taught: The sages they make a fence to their words in order that a person should not come from the field in the evening, and say I shall go to my house and eat a little bit and I shall drink a little bit and I shall sleep a little bit and after this I will recite the recitation of Shema and I shall pray And meanwhile, he sleeps and he is found sleeping all the night. but: a person shall come from the field in the evening, enter to the House of Assembly i.e., the synagogue if he is regularly accustomed to read he reads and if he is regularly accustomed to learn Mishna he learns Mishna and reads the recitation of Shema and he prays and eats his bread and he makes the blessing and all who transgress on the words of the sages he is liable to death. what is the difference here, in all cases that it is not taught he is liable to death; and why is it different here, where it teaches he is liable to death. If you wish, I would say It is because of this: That there is here the possibility of compulsion from sleep And if you wish, I would say To exclude from those who said the prayer of Arvit is a voluntary act Come and learn from this. that it is an obligation.
Mar said: one reads the recitation of Shema and he prays That would be a support to him. To whose position? to R' Yochanan, For thus said R' Yochanan Who is a child of The World to Come? This: the one who juxtaposes lit: leans redemption to the Prayer i.e., Amidah of Arvit Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says the Prayers were established to be said in the middle of each service In what fundamental issue do they come to disagree? If you like, I could say the differ about the interpretation of a verse If you wish, I would say they differ in how they reason out the logic. How so? First, If you wish, I would say they differ in how they reason out the logic. For R' Yochanan reasoned redemption started from twilight also you shall but rather, redemption that is elevated i.e., important -- the full redemption from Egypt did not occur except until daybreak and R' Yehoshua ben Levi reasoned because regarding the full redemption that it was not except from daybreak that only the daytime redemption is significant; the redemption at night shall not be considered redemption that is elevated i.e., important
The other interpretation was: And if you wish, I could say they disagree regarding the interpretation of a verse and both of them, one verse do they expound, as it is written: (Deut. 6) "when you lie down and when you arise." R' Yochanan reasoned There is an analogy between lying down to arising. Just as in the morning prayers, at the time of rising first one recites the recitation of Shema and after this prayer. So, too in the evening prayers, at the time of lying down also the order should be the recitation of Shema and after this prayer R' Yehoshua ben Levi reasoned There is an analogy between lying down to arising. Just as in the morning prayers, at the time of rising the recitation of Shema is immediately adjacent lit: leaning to his bed So, too in the evening prayers, at the time of lying down also the recitation of Shema should be immediately adjacent lit: leaning to his bed Mar, the son of Ravina challenged this: "in the evening, one blesses two blessings before it and two after it" And if you say he is required to make adjacent Hey, He does not come to juxtapos redemption to the Prayer i.e., Amidah for it is the case that he is required to say "Hashkiveinu" They said: because they decreed -- the rabbis did -- that one should recite "Hashkiveinu" like an elongation of the blessing of redemption it can be compared. For if you do not say thus, regarding the prayers of the morning, in what way does ??? right next lit: and leaning for this statement that Rabbi Yochanan said poses a contradiction: at the beginning he says (Ps. 51) "Hashem my lips may you open" and in the end he says (Ps. 19) "May it be Your will that the speech of my mouth..." But rather, there, because the rabbis decreed to say "Hashem, open my lips..." like a prayer that is elongated it is comparable. Here in this case, also, because the rabbis decreed to say "Hashkiveinu" like an elongation of the blessing of redemption it is comparable.
Rabbi Eliezer said Thus said Rabbi Avina All who say (Ps. 145) "A psalm of David:" every day three times Certain to him that he is a child of The World to Come. What is the reason? Shall I say It is because of this: That it comes as the aleph-bet? Let him say (Ps. 119) "Fortunate are the ones who are upright on the way" for it comes in eight! ??? But rather, is it because of this: that there is in it: (Ps. 145) "He opens His hand..." Let him say the great Hallel! As it is written therein: (Ps. 136) "He gives bread to all flesh" Rather, it must be It is because that there is therein both. Rabbi Yochanan said: On account of what It is not said a verse beginning with the letter nun in "Ashrei"? because of the fact that there is in it the fall of the enemies of Israel As it is written (Amos 5) "She has fallen no more to arise -- the virgin of Israel" in the west they interpret it thus "She has fallen and not in addition to fall any more Arise, virgin of Israel"
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said Even thus David had a vision and he juxtaposed lit: leaned with a holy spirit as it is said (Ps. 145) "Hashem is a support for all the fallen ones." R' Elazar bar Avina said: The greatness that is said about Michael is more than that which is said about Gavriel For these about Michael it is written (Is. 6) Then flew to me one of the Seraphim and these regarding Gavriel it is written (Dan. 9) "and the man Gavriel whom I saw in a vision at the beginning went flying in flight etc." What is to be heard to support this reading? That this "one" of the Seraphim" Michael is who is meant as he? R' Yochanan said: We come to compare "one" "one" It is written here "And he flew to me one of the Seraphim" and it is written there (Dan. 10) "and behold Michael, one of the captains that are the first came to my help" a Tanna taught: Michael reaches his destination in one flight, Gavriel in two, Elijah in four, and the angel of death in eight. But in the hour of the plague the angel of death reaches his destination in one.
R' Yehoshua ben Levi said: despite the fact that a person read the recitation of Shema in the House of Assembly (synagogue) it is a commandment for him to read it on his bed. Thus said Rabbi Yosei some texts read: Rav Asi or Rav Yosef What verse supports this? (Ps. 4) "Tremble, and do not sin; Speak in your hearts on your bed and be still; Selah." Rav Nachman said
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